19 June 2019

Afraid of food? The Answer May Be In The Basal Forebrain

Wednesday, June 19, 2019 0
After fasting for 24 hours the typical laboratory mouse spends much time eating. Surprisingly, this is not what Jay M. Patel saw when he was studying basal forebrain circuits in mice.
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"When I joined Dr. Benjamin Arenkiel's lab, they had just discovered a unique set of circuits in the basal forebrain, a region separate from the hypothalamus, the brain area that normally regulates how much you eat depending on how much energy you spend," said Patel, a student in the neuroscience Medical Scientist Training Program (M.D./Ph.D.) at Baylor College of Medicine. "I wanted to investigate what these circuits that are linked to the feeding center of the brain were actually doing."

Using cutting-edge technologies, including microendoscopy-imaging protocols, Patel and his colleagues first investigated what types of stimuli would activate the circuits. By recording the activity of the neurons, Patel found that food odors highly activated a subset of neurons in the basal forebrain identified by the expression of the molecule vGlut2.

"That was very interesting because we know that the sense of smell can drive appetite. For instance, after smelling dessert, you may want to eat it even though you just had a big meal. Or conversely, after smelling a spoiled dish you won't eat it, even if you are very hungry," Patel said.

Although researchers knew that the perception of food odors itself can affect neuronal activity in the hypothalamus, it was unclear how odor perception was relayed to the hypothalamus. They were excited at the possibility that the novel vGlut2+ basal forebrain circuits might provide an answer.
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Surprising results Patel and his colleagues studied the effect of specifically activating vGlut2+ neurons in the basal forebrain and observed dramatically altered feeding behavior in mice.

"Surprisingly, four to five days after we began the experiment, the mice started to lose weight quickly," Patel said.

The researchers determined that the animals' rapid weight loss could not be explained by metabolic dysfunction, as they found no differences between the levels of pituitary or thyroid hormones, or in the levels of glucose, insulin or leptin between the experimental and control groups. The mice lost weight rapidly because they had stopped eating.

"They did not eat even when they were hungry, which we found remarkable because animals are compelled to eat to survive," Patel said. Interestingly, further experiments showed that naturally aversive odors had a stronger effect on vGlut2+ basal forebrain neurons than food alone, triggering a food avoidance behavior in mice.

"It seemed that the animals were afraid of food," Patel said. "Even though they were hungry, they avoided locations where food was placed."

"We have identified a brain circuit driven by vGlut2+ neurons in the basal forebrain that suppresses appetite when it's active and stimulates feeding behavior when it's inactive," Patel said. "We also determined that this circuit, which is formed by just a couple of thousand neurons involved in perceiving the outside world, connects with and overrides feeding behaviors regulated by the hypothalamus."

"We think this work has potential implications that reach beyond feeding behaviors and mouse physiology," said Arenkiel, associate professor of neuroscience and molecular and human genetics and a McNair Scholar at Baylor. He is also a member of the Jan and Dan Duncan Neurological Research Institute at Texas Children's Hospital. "This circuit is highly involved with how our brain perceives the outside world and brings this information to the hypothalamus, thus connecting with aspects of physiology like feeding, which relates to eating disorders that are associated with many neuropsychiatric conditions."

To read all the details of this work, go to the journal eLife.

Other contributors to this work include Jessica Swanson, Kevin Ung, Alexander Herman, Elizabeth Hanson and Joshua Ortiz-Guzmán, all affiliated with Baylor College of Medicine; Jennifer Selever (at Baylor and the Jan and Dan Duncan Neurological Research Institute, Texas Children's Hospital); and Qingchun Tong at University of Texas Health Science Center, Houston.

Story Source:
Materials provided by Baylor College of Medicine. Original written by Ana María Rodríguez, Ph.D.. Note: Content may be edited for style and length.

Journal Reference:
Jay M Patel, Jessica Swanson, Kevin Ung, Alexander Herman, Elizabeth Hanson, Joshua Ortiz-Guzman, Jennifer Selever, Qingchun Tong, Benjamin R Arenkiel. Sensory perception drives food avoidance through excitatory basal forebrain circuits. eLife, 2019; 8 DOI: 10.7554/eLife.44548

Cite This Page:
Baylor College of Medicine. "Afraid of food? The answer may be in the basal forebrain." ScienceDaily. ScienceDaily, 18 June 2019. <www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2019/06/190618132042.htm>.

18 June 2019

5 Fad Diets to Avoid

Tuesday, June 18, 2019 0
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There are so many fad diets out there these days that attract people with there fast weight loss and celebrity lifestyle image. The fact is that nearly all of these diets only really offer short-term weight loss solutions and can be extremely unhealthy. Iv'e put together a list of 5 popular fad diets - along with reasons NOT to try them!

1.Detox Diet
Claims to lose a stone in 10 days, defeat cellulite, give glowing skin and no more bloating. This diet is meant to compliment other detox methods such as massages, colonic irrigation, saunas, fasting etc. Food such as fish, meat, eggs, dairy, wheat, salt, sugar etc are banned, while fruit, veg, beans, seeds, nuts are allowed. This results in a lack of nutrients, lowered immune system, a temporary weight loss, mainly water. It can lead to yo-yo dieting, nausea, sickness and headaches. It is said to causes food cravings, resulting in eventually giving up! It can also cause eating disorders and there is no good evidence of it actually working!

2.Low Carb / Atkins Die
The aim of low carb diets is to force the body to use its own fat as its main energy source. This produces something called ketone bodies to fuel body parts that can not use fat as an energy source such as the brain and red blood cells. This puts you in a state of ketosis - resulting in smelly breath and side effects like fatigue and nausea. These diets do produce short term results, which actually come from loss of muscle tissue and water. They are not a long term weight loss solution and are unhealthy if sustained.

3.Starvation Diet
Starving yourself is one of the worst diets that you could try. Ok, you may initially lose a lot of weight but the effect this has on your body is drastic! You will be extremely lacking much needed nutrition and this will lead to fatigue, lack of sex drive and hormones, sleep loss, possible hypothermia, poor concentration and judgement, depression, anxiety, personality changes, social withdrawal, your metabolism will dramatically slow down, you will lose organ tissue and muscles, you can get shakes, feel the cold more, and feel very week. Low calorie intakes actually slow down weight loss.
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4.Hollywood Diet
This is basically a 24 or 48 hour 'Juice Fast' where you eat no food in this time. This diet has the same cons as the starvation diet. You are really just losing excess water in the body with this diet and it does'nt last long, you will soon put that weight back on. It is expensive to buy the juice, around $25! You will get no protein or iron in the body, and will be taking lots of sugar and carbs. Tastes good at first but soon turns very sickly.

5.Cabbage Soup Diet
This is a 7 day diet plan which supposedly offers a fast weight loss solution. This is a very short term solution and is not sustainable so is'nt a viable option for long term weight loss. There are a few benefits to this diet which include fast weight loss, a healthy beneficial change from eating junk food, and research has shown that cabbage helps to prevent cancer. However, the drawbacks do outweigh these benefits somewhat significantly. The soup is high in salt, lacking in good overall nutrition - low in protein, calcium, essential fatty acids, high in sodium and MSG, requires much will power as the soup tastes very bland and is extremely repetitive, gives you gas!, and most of all this is not a healthy sustainable solution to long-term weight loss. This diet will most probably make you GAIN weight as it has a very low calorie intake and you can get bloated!

There really is no substitute for a healthy diet and regular exercise if you want to lose weight and live an overall healthier and more active lifestyle.

17 June 2019

Millions of Cardiovascular Deaths Attributed to not Eating Enough Fruits and Vegetables

Monday, June 17, 2019 0
Preliminary findings from a new study reveal that inadequate fruit and vegetable consumption may account for millions of deaths from heart disease and strokes each year. The study estimated that roughly 1 in 7 cardiovascular deaths could be attributed to not eating enough fruit and 1 in 12 cardiovascular deaths could be attributed to not eating enough vegetables.
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Low fruit intake resulted in nearly 1.8 million cardiovascular deaths in 2010, while low vegetable intake resulted in 1 million deaths, according to researchers. Overall, the toll of suboptimal fruit intake was almost double that of vegetables. The impacts were most acute in countries with the lowest average intakes of fruits and vegetables.

"Fruits and vegetables are a modifiable component of diet that can impact preventable deaths globally," said lead study author Victoria Miller, a postdoctoral researcher at the Friedman School of Nutrition Science and Policy at Tufts University. "Our findings indicate the need for population-based efforts to increase fruit and vegetable consumption throughout the world."

Miller will present the research findings at Nutrition 2019, the American Society for Nutrition annual meeting, held June 8-11, 2019 in Baltimore.

Fruits and vegetables are good sources of fiber, potassium, magnesium, antioxidants and phenolics, which have been shown to reduce blood pressure and cholesterol. Fresh fruits and vegetables also improve the health and diversity of good bacteria in the digestive tract. People who eat more of these foods also are less likely to be overweight or obese, lowering their risk of cardiovascular disease.

"Global nutrition priorities have traditionally focused on providing sufficient calories, vitamin supplementation and reducing additives like salt and sugar," said senior study author Dariush Mozaffarian, dean of the Friedman School of Nutrition Science and Policy at Tufts University. "These findings indicate a need to expand the focus to increasing availability and consumption of protective foods like fruits, vegetables and legumes -- a positive message with tremendous potential for improving global health."
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Based on dietary guidelines and studies of cardiovascular risk factors, the researchers defined optimal fruit intake as 300 grams per day, equivalent to roughly two small apples. Optimal intake of vegetables, including legumes, was defined as 400 grams per day, equivalent to about three cups of raw carrots.

The researchers estimated average national intakes of fruit and vegetables from diet surveys and food availability data representing 113 countries (about 82 percent of the world's population), then combined this information with data on causes of death in each country and data on the cardiovascular risk associated with inadequate fruit and vegetable consumption. The work is part of the Global Dietary Database project funded by the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation.

Based on data from 2010, the scientists estimated that suboptimal fruit consumption results in nearly 1.3 million deaths from stroke and more than 520,000 deaths from coronary heart disease (narrowing of the heart's arteries) worldwide each year. Suboptimal vegetable consumption was estimated to result in about 200,000 deaths from stroke and more than 800,000 deaths from coronary heart disease.

The impact of inadequate fruit and vegetable intake was greatest in countries with the lowest fruit and vegetable consumption. Countries in South Asia, East Asia and Sub-Saharan Africa had low fruit intake and high rates of associated stroke deaths. Countries in Central Asia and Oceania had low vegetable intake and high rates of associated coronary heart disease.

In the United States, suboptimal vegetable intake may account for 82,000 cardiovascular deaths while suboptimal fruit intake accounted for 57,000 deaths. Cardiovascular disease is the number one cause of death in the United States and worldwide.

By age group, suboptimal fruit and vegetable intake had the greatest perceived proportional impact on cardiovascular disease deaths among younger adults. By gender, suboptimal fruit and vegetable intake had the greatest proportional impact on cardiovascular disease deaths in men, likely because women tend to eat more fruits and vegetables, Miller noted.

Story Source:
Materials provided by American Society for Nutrition. Note: Content may be edited for style and length.

Cite This Page:
American Society for Nutrition. "Millions of cardiovascular deaths attributed to not eating enough fruits and vegetables: Study tracks toll of suboptimal fruit and vegetable intake by region, age and gender." ScienceDaily. ScienceDaily, 10 June 2019. <www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2019/06/190610100624.htm>.

Excess Weight and Body Fat Cause Cardiovascular Disease

Monday, June 17, 2019 0
Excess weight and body fat cause a range of heart and blood vessel diseases, according to the first study to investigate this using a method called Mendelian randomisation.
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In particular, the study published in the European Heart Journal, shows that as body mass index (BMI) and fat mass increase, so does the risk of aortic valve stenosis -- a condition in which the valve controlling the flow of blood from the heart to the body's largest blood vessel, the aorta, narrows and fails to open fully.

Mendelian randomisation is a way of showing whether or not individual risk factors actually cause disease, rather than just being associated with it. It uses genetic variants that are already known to be associated with potential risk factors, such as BMI and body fat, as indirect indicators or "proxies" for these risk factors. This enables researchers to discover whether the risk factor is the cause of the disease (rather than the other way around), and reduces bias in results because genetic variants are determined at conception and cannot be affected by subsequent external or environmental factors, or by the development of disease.

The researchers, led by Susanna Larsson, associate professor and senior researcher at the Karolinska Institute, Stockholm, Sweden, studied 96 genetic variants associated with BMI and body fat mass to estimate their effect on 14 cardiovascular diseases in 367,703 participants of white-British descent in UK Biobank -- a UK-based national and international resource containing data on 500,000 people, aged 40-69 years.

She said: "The causal association between BMI and fat mass and several heart and blood vessel diseases, in particular aortic valve stenosis, was unknown. Using Mendelian randomisation we found that higher BMI and fat mass are associated with an increased risk of aortic valve stenosis and most other cardiovascular diseases, suggesting that excess body fat is a cause of cardiovascular disease."

People who had genetic variants that predict higher BMI were at increased risk of aortic valve stenosis, heart failure, deep vein thrombosis, high blood pressure, peripheral artery disease, coronary artery disease, atrial fibrillation and pulmonary embolism. For every genetically-predicted 1kg/m2 increase in BMI, the increased risk ranged from 6% for pulmonary embolism to 13% for aortic valve stenosis. (Above a BMI that is considered 'healthy' (20-25 kg/m2) every 1 kg/m2 increase in BMI for someone who is 1.7 metres tall (5'7") corresponds to a weight gain of nearly 3 kg.)

The researchers also found that risk of cardiovascular diseases increased with the genetic variants predicting increases in fat mass. The greatest increased risk was also for aortic valve stenosis (46% increased risk), followed by ischaemic stroke, transient ischaemic attack, atrial fibrillation, heart failure, peripheral artery disease, deep vein thrombosis, high blood pressure and coronary artery disease.

The researchers stress that although these genetic variants can predispose people to be more likely to gain excess weight, the most important factors implicated in the development of cardiovascular disease are diet and physical activity.

Professor Larsson said: "Our genes can make us somewhat more predisposed to gain body weight but lifestyle factors, such as overeating and lack of physical activity, are the major determinants of overweight. A healthy diet is the cornerstone of cardiovascular disease prevention, and how much we eat should be limited to the amount of energy required to maintain a healthy body weight, which is a BMI of between 20 to 25 kg/m2. People who are predisposed to a higher BMI may need to work a bit harder to maintain a healthy weight."
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The strengths of the study include the large numbers of people involved and the fact that they were of European descent, which reduces the potential for bias from different populations. Potential limitations are that some genetic variants may be associated with more than one characteristic, that the number of cases were few for some diseases, and that there was a lack of information on the severity of aortic valve stenosis.

The damaged valve in aortic valve stenosis means that less blood leaves the heart and it has to work harder to pump enough blood out to circulate round the body. Blood can back up in other parts of the heart and sometimes the lungs. This can lead to shortness of breath, tiredness, fainting, chest pain and an irregular heart beat.

Story Source:
Materials provided by European Society of Cardiology. Note: Content may be edited for style and length.

Journal Reference:
Susanna C Larsson, Magnus Bäck, Jessica M B Rees, Amy M Mason, Stephen Burgess. Body mass index and body composition in relation to 14 cardiovascular conditions in UK Biobank: a Mendelian randomization study. European Heart Journal, 2019; DOI: 10.1093/eurheartj/ehz388

Cite This Page:
European Society of Cardiology. "Excess weight and body fat cause cardiovascular disease." ScienceDaily. ScienceDaily, 13 June 2019. <www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2019/06/190613191115.htm>.

16 June 2019

Remove Dark Spot In 1 Day

Sunday, June 16, 2019 0
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I Got Shocked With The Results Of This Magical Remedy, It Removed Dark Spot In 1 Day 

Today I will share a mysterious cure which will expel your dim spots in only 1 day. This cure will blur your dark circles and dim spots and give you perfect, clear and splendid skin. Rehash this methodology day by day for 3 days. 

Fixings you will require:

1 tablespoon of aloe Vera gel (I incline toward new aloe vera gel, in the event that you dont have plant at home you can utilize patanjali aloe vera gel) 

2 nutrient E container (evion 400) 
1 teaspoon of additional virgin olive oil 

Method

1. Right off the bat in a bowl take 1 tablespoon of Aloe Vera gel, 2 nutrient E cases and 1 teaspoon of additional virgin olive oil. Blend them well so every one of the fixings get consolidated together. 

2. Presently apply it on your dim spot regions and leave it for 30 minutes. At that point wash it with ordinary water, pat dry and saturate it well. 

Nutrient E battles with free radicals and lessens hyperpigmentation and dull spots. 

15 June 2019

Vitamin D supplement does not prevent type 2 diabetes in adults at high risk, study finds

Saturday, June 15, 2019 0
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Reviewed by Kate Anderton,
Taking a daily vitamin D supplement does not prevent type 2 diabetes in adults at high risk, according to results from a study funded by National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases (NIDDK), part of the National Institutes of Health. The Vitamin D and Type 2 Diabetes (D2d) study enrolled 2,423 adults and was conducted at 22 sites across the United States. These findings were published June 7 in the New England Journal of Medicine and presented at the 79th Scientific Sessions of the American Diabetes Association in San Francisco.

D2d is the largest study to directly examine if daily vitamin D supplementation helps keep people at high risk for type 2 diabetes from developing the disease. The study included adults aged 30 or older and assigned participants randomly to either take 4,000 International Units (IU) of the D3 (cholecalciferol) form of vitamin D or a placebo pill daily. All study participants had their vitamin D levels measured at the start of the study. At that time, about 80% of participants had vitamin D levels considered sufficient by U.S. nutritional standards.

"Observational studies have reported an association between low levels of vitamin D and increased risk for type 2 diabetes," said Myrlene Staten, M.D., D2d project scientist at NIDDK. "Additionally, smaller studies found that vitamin D could improve the function of beta cells, which produce insulin. However, whether vitamin D supplementation may help prevent or delay type 2 diabetes was not known."

The study screened participants every three to six months for an average of 2.5 years to determine if diabetes had developed. Researchers then compared the number of people in each of the two study groups that had progressed to type 2 diabetes. At the end of the study, 293 out of 1211 participants (24.2%) in the vitamin D group developed diabetes compared to 323 out of 1212 (26.7%) in the placebo group - a difference that did not reach statistical significance. The study was designed to detect a risk reduction of 25% or more.

D2d enrolled a diverse group of participants with a range of physical characteristics, including sex, age, and body mass index, as well as racial and ethnic diversity. This representation helps ensure that the study findings could be widely applicable to people at high risk for developing type 2 diabetes.

In addition to the study's size, one of its major strengths is the diversity of its participants, which enabled us to examine the effect of vitamin D across a large variety of people. When the study ended, we found no meaningful difference between the two groups regardless of age, sex, race or ethnicity."
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Lead author Anastassios G. Pittas, M.D., principal investigator from Tufts Medical Center, Boston

More than 50% of adults in the United States take nutritional supplements and use of vitamin D has increased substantially over the last 20 years. Because of these trends, the study also evaluated the safety of taking 4,000 units of vitamin D daily -- greater than the average daily recommended dose of 600-800 IUs a day, but within limits deemed appropriate for clinical research by the Institute of Medicine. The researchers saw no difference in the number and frequency of predicted side effects such as high blood calcium levels and kidney stones when they compared the vitamin D and placebo groups.

D2d (ClinicalTrials.gov No. NCT01942694) was supported under NIH award U01DK098245, primarily funded by NIDDK, with additional support from the NIH Office of Dietary Supplements and the American Diabetes Association. Support in the form of educational materials was provided by the National Diabetes Education Program, a joint program of the NIH and Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.

Source:

‘Stomach Flu’ Vaccine Prevents Type 1 Diabetes in Children

Saturday, June 15, 2019 0
www.trendsnowdays.com
Scientists have discovered that the rotavirus vaccine reduces the likelihood of children being diagnosed with type 1 diabetes. Rotavirus causes a severe gastrointestinal illness characterized by diarrhea and dehydration. It is rarely fatal in developed countries but can be deathly in low-income countries.

The authors of the current study looked at almost 1.5 million insurance records of American children born after 2001, who were followed for periods ranging from 1 to 16.5 years, depending on their year of birth and registration with the insurance firm.

Among completely immunized children, the risk of type 1 diabetes went down by 41%. The incidence was 12.2/100 000 compared to 20.5/ 100 000 for unvaccinated and partially vaccinated children, during the period of study. In other words, skipped doses eliminated any benefit in terms of preventing diabetes.

Both the pentavalent and monovalent rotavirus vaccines are used in the US, but the greatest reduction in risk (37%) was seen with children who were completely immunized; having had three doses of the pentavalent vaccine.

When classified by birth year, researcher Dr. Mary Rogers found that type 1 diabetes risk was reduced by 33% for fully vaccinated children born between 2006 and 2011, but this went up to 54% for those born between 2012 and 2016. The reason for the difference is unknown, but might be because rotavirus delays diabetes onset, rather than preventing it altogether.


After adjusting the risk factors, the risk reduction was found to be 33% for vaccinated children born between 2006 and 2017. While there was no difference between boys and girls, babies born in winter had a lower incidence compared to those born in spring or autumn, and those who lived in the central US compared to New England and New Jersey, which have higher rates of skipped vaccination.

The incidence of type 1 diabetes in the vaccinated cohort was 55% lower compared to the five years before vaccine introduction (in 2006).

Was the risk reduction due to the rotavirus vaccine or other vaccines?

The 2006 cohort also served as the historical controls to find if other vaccines were responsible for the risk reduction. To examine this, the children from the historical cohort were analyzed for diabetes risk after they received their first three immunizations for diphtheria, tetanus, and pertussis at 2, 4 and 6 months. These records were compared with children in the current cohort who received, in addition, the rotavirus vaccine. Here again, there was a 56% reduction in type 1 diabetes incidence in the second group.

Altogether, the disease incidence reduced by almost 7% after 2006 in the age group from 0 to 19 years, in contrast to the 7% rise in each previous year. The reduction was seen almost completely in children 0-4 years old, because other age groups showed a rise in incidence.

The study also looked at how effective the vaccine was against rotavirus infection, and found that children who had received the vaccine were 94% less likely to need hospitalization for this cause. In addition, children who had received the vaccine had a 31% lower risk of hospital stay for any cause during the 60 days following the administration of the oral vaccine.

How does the rotavirus vaccine prevent type 1 diabetes?

Rotavirus infection is known to affect the beta cells in the pancreas which produce insulin. This may be responsible for the lower incidence of type 1 diabetes following this immunization, but because the disease is comparatively rare, large numbers of people must be examined before any causation hypothesis can be proved.

More studies are required over a longer time frame to find out whether the disease is truly prevented or just delayed. Other confounding factors which may have affected the results must also be identified.

As a result of this preliminary analysis, which is the first time that this trend has been examined in detail, the researchers say that strengthening commitments to enforce the immunization schedule already in place could go a long way in reducing the number of cases of this chronic medical condition.

Source:
Rogers M. A. M. et al., (2019). Lower Incidence Rate of Type 1 Diabetes after Receipt of the Rotavirus Vaccine in the United States, 2001–2017. Scientific Reports. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41598-019-44193-4

14 June 2019

When You're Tired All Day, When You Snore All Night, Is It Sleep Apnea?

Friday, June 14, 2019 0
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If you are tired all the time, it's likely you don't get enough sleep. Sleep apnea can be the cause, and snoring is an early warning sign. Find out about sleep apnea, and symptoms like snoring, sleep deprivation, sleep disorders, feeling tired and sluggish, and not getting enough sleep. 

Does your heavy snoring keep your partner awake. Or worse yet, do you have to sleep in separate rooms? Does someone threaten to record your snoring because it's unbelievably noisy. 

1. How you know when you've got sleep apnea. It is likely that your partner noticed that you stop breathing often during the night, and called your attention to it. You may already know that you are sleep deprived, because you are sluggish during the day. Sometimes you feel like a zombie, just going through the motions. Maybe you can't drive long distances without falling asleep. Maybe you take secret naps at lunchtime or during the day. 

2. The hidden cause of tiredness can be sleep apnea, a condition in which the airway closes during sleep. The brain's fight-or-flight response wakes you up, forcing you to breathe. But you aren't awake up long enough to become conscious of it, because you fall right back to sleep. Sleep apnea can be scarey and threaten to your overall health. 


3. Special medical clinics are dedicated to treat sleep apnea and other sleep disorders. They invite you to spend the night asleep in the hospital while your sleeping patterns can be observed. Your body is wired to record brain waves and your reflexes and movement. From the sleep study you can learn about your condition. You may be told that you stop breathing and wake up frequently, often more than once a minute. You are just not getting the type of deep, restful sleep you need to get through your day. 

4. Heavy snoring is the precursor to sleep apnea. Snoring occurs as a vibrating resonance because a person's airway is partially blocked. Sleep apnea can develop for many reasons. The cause could be enlarged tonsils or obesity or it can just be simple anatomy, the shape of your airway. With apnea, it's just like sucking a thick milk shake through a paper straw. The straw collapses. 

5. Sleep apnea is one of the more common sleep disorders treated by sleep specialists, but there is a range of other issues. There are sleep walkers, sleep talkers, and sleep eaters. Some people act out their dreams. Sleep problems can be related to other health problems like stroke, Lou Gehrig's disease and muscular dystrophy. Some people get too much sleep, the narcoleptics, and some can't get any sleep, the insomniacs. Perhaps you work at night and your sleep routine is fighting the circadian rhythm, your internal body clock. But, whatever the reason for sleep apnea, you and many people like you aren't getting enough quality sleep. They are sleep deprived. 

6. One solution for sleep apnea is the use of a continuous positive air pressure machine CPAP, which forced air into the breathing passages while you sleep. It takes time to get used to the machine, and a respiratory therapist to adjust it for you. The machine goes on, there is a swoosh of air and the patient enjoys uninterrupted sleep for a solid eight hours. 

7. Other treatments often help relieve sleep apnea. There are medications, devices for the mouth, and sometimes surgery to remove the obstructing tissue. 
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8. When you sleep well, you are more productive on the job. You can deliver your best work, and life is more fun. The snoring will be less annoying, so your partner will also be well-rested and worry-free.

I hope life brings you much success.
I wish you a very happy day.